GLEIZES, M., B. CAMARA, J. WALTER. FIRMAGE, D.H. 1981. The VOC data were statistically analyzed by MDA using PCA and PLSR as previously described (Ghirardo et al., 2016; Jud et al., 2016; Weikl et al., 2016) using the software package SIMCA-P version (Umetrics). As an alternative, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed by using a probe derived from NDPS1 with digested DNA from M82, LA0716, as well as introgression lines IL1-4 and IL8-1-1. J. Biochem. We therefore constructed an ORF of NDPS1 that began at Ser-45 (with an initiating Met codon in front) and a His-tag extension at the C terminus and expressed this protein in E. coli. 1A), whereas ILs from elsewhere in the genome consistently displayed the M82 monoterpene profile (e.g., IL1-4) (Fig. We need a deliberative process that’s transparent, politically neutral, scientifically balanced, and representative of all relevant disciplines and expertise. Anatomical studies indicated that the formation of Lamiaceae glands and filling of the subcuticular space occur only in actively growing, protodermal regions of the leaf surface (Werker et al., 1993); tracking the distribution of various gland developmental stages during peppermint leaf development has shown that 2-week-old leaves have especially high proportions of filling glands (G. Turner, J. Gershenzon, and R. Croteau, unpublished data). LUCKNER, M. 1984. 5-epi-Aristolochene is a common precursor of the sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins capsidiol and debneyol. Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. Both proteins were shown to be highly expressed in the glands and localized in the plastids. The amount of foregone photosynthesis can be estimated from the needle volume that is used for monoterpene synthesis and storage rather than photosynthetic tissue. Z. Naturforsch. Naturwiss. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 13: 85–154. 6: 147–186. After the pulse, unincorporated14CO2 was exhausted from the chamber into a 10 n KOH trap, and the plants were left under the incandescent lights in a fume cabinet for 6 h. Replicate samples of leaves of the various ages were then harvested for analysis.

The comparison with kaurene synthase strongly suggests that the complete ORF of PHS1 also encodes a plastid transit peptide. Thus, their emission would have no effect on the monoterpenes of stored pools. Baccatins are potent inhibitors of the cell cycle. Plant Cell Reports 8: 48–52. 1988.

Our results, together with those of Sallaud et al. Fares et al., 2010; Kurpius and Goldstein, 2003, Ciccioli et al., 1999; Fares et al., 2012a,b; Kurpius and Goldstein, 2003, Chameides et al., 1988; Papiez et al., 2009, Henze and Seinfeld, 2006; Kanakidou et al., 2005. I would like to use pre-buffered coco. To determine the rate of monoterpene biosynthesis, leaves of various ages were exposed to a 5-min pulse of14CO2, and the incorporation of 14C into monoterpenes was measured after a 6-h chase period. Flower buds first appeared at the stem apex when leaves were 30 to 35 d old (stems 30–35 cm tall), and flowering commenced at approximately 45 to 50 d. By the time leaves were 55 d old, they had begun to senesce and abscise. Samples were taken periodically from a group of leaves that were approximately 2 weeks old at the time of pulsing, and thus (according to measurements of the rate of monoterpene biosynthesis; see Fig.2) at the stage of maximal monoterpene production.

Metabolism of monoterpenes: demonstration of (+)-neomenthyl-β-, Metabolism of monoterpenes: evidence for the function of monoterpene catabolism in peppermint (, Metabolism of monoterpenes: early steps in the metabolism of, Metabolism of monoterpenes: demonstration that (+)-, Biosynthesis of resin terpenes in leaves and glandular hairs of, Mechanism of monoterpene volatilization in. (T.H. OBA, K., I. URITANI. Biotic elicitors of defense reactions in lodgepole pine. The purification and properties of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase from pumpkin fruit. Results from experimental measurements show that in the central hours of the day, when light and temperature maximise BVOC emission, non-stomatal ozone deposition is larger than stomatal deposition. Comparison of the composition of monoterpenes stored (black bars) and emitted (white bars) by peppermint shoots. 1987. In vitro assays with purified recombinant PHS1 using different substrates. Image credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. Silver Bullet Water Treatment Company, Peace-of-Mind Microbial Remediation: Rad Source Technologies. Biosynthesis of mono- and sesqui-terpenes in peppermint from glucose-, Relationship of camphor biosynthesis to leaf development in sage (. The largest contributor to the global monoterpene emission is α-pinene. Arch. LOOMIS. The fine structure of the mature resin cells of, BOSABALIDIS, A., I. TSEKOS. Adv.

There are about a thousand monoterpene compounds but only less than 20 are emitted into the atmosphere at significant rates. Supplemental Figure 7. Glandular scale development and essential oil secretion in, CROTEAU, R., K.V.

Can. Hence, the cost of one NADPH is (1 + 1/36)/12 = 0.086 glucose unit. ), Academic Press, New York, pp. Gaseous 3-pentanol primes plant immunity against a bacterial speck pathogen, Isoprene and α-pinene deposition to grassland mesocosms, How do plants achieve immunity? Ann. − (Figures 7 and 11). One important notion is that, as most BVOC are strongly reactive, they do not accumulate in the atmosphere, despite being emitted at large rates. de Cássia da Silveira e Sá R(1), Andrade LN, de Sousa DP. Subsequently, four treated pots were enclosed per dessicator together with four pots containing two wild-type “receiver” plants each. Our results also bring to the fore the evolution of new functions that occurs among prenyltransferases in plants, which belong to at least two distinct families. In: Bioflavour ‘87: Analysis, Biochemistry, Biotechnology. No linalool was detected in any of the samples. A14CO2 pulse-labeling experiment previously conducted with peppermint showed similar trends (Srivastava and Luthra, 1991). These high storage costs also indicate that monoterpenes, even though they can be metabolized (Gershenzon et al., 1993), are a relatively immobile defense; the resin canals cannot be broken down. The nucleotide sequences of the other qPCR primers used in this study are listed in Supplemental Table 2. Similar to MeSA, the emissions of α-pinene and sabinene from Arabidopsis are induced by methyl jasmonate (Kegge et al., 2013).

At1g11755/lew1 was identified in a mutant screen for plants with a leaf-wilting phenotype under normal growth conditions (25). In: Biology and Chemistry of Plant Trichomes.


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